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-------------------------------------Henry the navigator's base is in Sagres between Lagos and Portimao-----------------------------------------

------Henry the navigator---------------------------------Caravel----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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The School of Navigation founded by Henry the Navigator at Sagres, Portugal
Map of Sagres
Map of Sagres

The Navigators and the Discoveries

It was to this place that the Infante D. Henrique, Prince Henry the Navigator, came in the 15th century to work on his obsession to push back the frontiers of the known world, and opened the phase in Portuguese history called The Discoveries.

The exact location of Henry's School of Navigation is not known. It is generally accepted that he sited his headquarters at Sagres and created a settlement on land granted by the crown. The settlement came to be known as Vila do Infante, or Prince's town.

The school of navigation was like a magnet to the best brains in Europe concerned with the nautical sciences. Under Henry's patronage, a community of brilliant scholars came here to teach and to study, and accumulated and correlated nautical knowledge as it was brought back by captains of successive voyages to hitherto unknown places.

The scholars in turn instructed less experienced captains about Atlantic currents and wind systems and the latest navigational methods. Cartography was refined with the use of newly devised instruments. Maps were regularly updated and extended. A revolutionary type of vessel, the caravel, was designed.

------‍Bartholomew Dias-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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A nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer. He sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, the first European known to have done so.


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Voyage of Bartolomeu Dias (1487–88)

The expedition sailed south along the West coast of Africa. Extra provisions were picked up on the way at the Portuguese fortress of São Jorge de Mina on the Gold Coast. After having sailed past Angola, Dias reached the Golfo da Conceicão (Walvis Bay) by December. Having rounded the Cape of Good Hope at a considerable distance, Dias continued east and entered what he named Aguada de São Brás (Bay of Saint Blaise)—later renamed Mossel Bay—on 3 February 1488. Dias's expedition reached its furthest point on 12 March 1488 when they anchored at Kwaaihoek, near the mouth of the Bushman's River, where a padrão—the Padrão de São Gregório—was erected before turning back.

Bartolomeu Dias was a Knight of the royal court, superintendent of the royal warehouses, and sailing-master of the man-of-war, São Cristóvão (Saint Christopher). King John ll of Portugal appointed him, on 10 October 1487, to head an expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa in the hope of finding a trade route to India.

Dias' ship São Cristóvãowas piloted by Pêro

de Alenquer. A second caravel, the São Pantaleão, was commanded by João Infante and piloted by Álvaro Martins. Dias' brother Pêro Dias was the captain of the square-rigged support ship with João de Santiago as pilot.

----------------São Cristóvão-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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-------‍Christopher Columbus--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements in the island of Hispaniola, initiated the process of Spanish colonization, which foreshadowed the general European colonization of what became known as the "New World".


File:Viajes de colon en.svg
File:Viajes de colon en.svg

During his first voyage in 1492, instead of reaching Japan as he had intended, Columbus landed in the Bahamas archipelago, at a locale he named San Salvador. Over the course of three more voyages, Columbus visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America, claiming them for the Spanish Empire.

Between 1492 and 1503, Columbus completed four round-trip voyages between Spain and the Americas, all of them under the sponsorship of the Crown of Castile. These voyages marked the beginning of the European exploration and colonization of the American continents, and are thus of enormous significance in Western history. Columbus himself always insisted, in the face of mounting evidence to the contrary, that the lands that he visited during those voyages were part of the Asian continent, as previously described by Marco Polo and other European travelers. Columbus's refusal to accept that the lands he had visited and claimed for Spain were not part of Asia might explain, in part, why the American continent was named after the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci and not after Columbus.

On the evening of 3 August 1492, Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships: a larger carrack, the Santa María ex-Gallega ("Galician"), and two smaller caravels, the Pinta ("Painted") and the Santa Clara, nicknamed the Niña ("Girl") after her owner Juan Niño of Moguer.

-----------------------Santa María------------------------------------------------The Pinta------------------------------------------Santa Clara--------------------------------------------

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--------Vascoda Gama-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- external image 220px-Vasco-da-gama-2.jpg

Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India. For a short time in 1524 he was the Governor of Portuguese India, under the title of Viceroy.

----------------First Voyage---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- external image 300px-Gama_route_1.svg.png

The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499)

On 8 July 1497 Vasco da Gama led a fleet of four ships with a crew of 170 men from Lisbon. The distance traveled in the journey around Africa to India and back was greater than around the equator. The navigators included Portugal's most experienced, Pero de Alenquer, Pedro Escobar, João de Coimbra, and Afonso Gonçalves. It is not known for certain how many people were in each ship's crew but approximately 55 returned, and two ships were lost. Two of the vessels were as naus or newly built for the voyage, possibly a caravel and a supply boat.

The four ships were:
The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499)
  • The São Gabriel, commanded by Vasco da Gama; a carrack of 178 tons, length 27 m, width 8.5 m, draft 2.3 m, sails of 372 m²
  • The São Rafael, whose commander was his brother Paulo da Gama; similar dimensions to the São Gabriel
  • The caravel Berrio, slightly smaller than the former two (later renamed São Miguel), commanded by Nicolau Coelho
  • A storage ship of unknown name, commanded by Gonçalo Nunes, later lost near the Bay of São Brás, along the east coast of Africa

-------The São Gabriel-------------------external image odsao.jpgThe São Rafael----------The caravel Berrio--------------------------------------------------------------------

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---------Ferdinand Magellan---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer. He was born in Sabrosa, in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands" (modern Maluku Islands in Indonesia).

Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan; the passage being made via the Strait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. It also completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth, although Magellan himself did not complete the entire voyage, being killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines.


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Magellan left Spain in 1519 with five ships. It took more than fourteen months to find the southern opening to the Pacific Ocean. He found it in the frigid, stormy waters now known as the Strait of Magellan. What Magellan did not count on was the immensity of the Pacific, a body of water larger than all of the land on earth. Magellan expected Asia to be a few hundred miles past beyond the coast of South America. Instead, the expedition traveled 12,600 miles before reaching land.

The starving sailors arrived the island of Guam after more than six months at sea, and then moved on to the Philippines. While in the Philippines, Magellan discovered that his servant, Enrique, could understand the native language. Magellan realized that Enrique was the first person to have traveled completely around the world.

Magellan had survived eighteen months at sea, but he was killed in battle in the Philippines. A local warrior persuaded Magellan to defeat his rival in battle. Most of Magellan’s men considered the battle both pointless and dangerous, so they refused to participate. Magellan was hit with a poison arrow in the battle and died.

One of Magellan’s five ships did make it back to Spain, only twelve days less than three years after their journey started. Only one ship and eighteen sailors remained of the 265 men accompanied Magellan.

---------------The Trinidad-----------------------The San Antonio-------------The Conception--------------The Victoria-------------------The Santiago--------------------

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Early English and Dutch Explorers

-------------Francis Drake--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Francis Drake was an English sea captain, privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I of England awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. He also carried out the second circumnavigation of the world, from 1577 to 1580. He died of dysentery in January 1596 after unsuccessfully attacking San Juan, Puerto Rico.


cirumnavigation by Sir Francis Drake
cirumnavigation by Sir Francis Drake

He was the first Englishman to sail around the world, which he did (1577 - 1580) in his ship The golden Hinde. Drake started his famous circumnavigation of the world from Plymouth, England, November 15, 1577, passed through the Straight of Magellan (southern tip of South America) into the Pacific, coasted up the western shores of the Americas, crossed to Asia and the Philippines, and finally returned to Britain on September 26, 1580.

-------------The golden Hinde--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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---------------Abel Tasman--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Abel Tasman was a Dutch seafarer, explorer and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the VOC (United East India Company). His was the first known European expedition to reach the islands of Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) and New Zealand, and to sight the Fiji islands. His navigator François Visscher, and his merchant Isaack Gilsemans, mapped substantial portions of Australia, New Zealand and some Pacific Islands.


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In 1633, Tasman went to Batavia in service of the VOC; four years later he was back in Amsterdam. Tasman signed on for another ten years and took his wife along to Batavia. In 1639 Tasman was sent as second in command of an exploring expedition in the north Pacific under Matthijs Quast. His fleet included the ships Engel and Gracht and reached Fort Zeelandia (Dutch Formosa) and Deshima.


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---------------William Dampier---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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William Dampier was the first Englishman to explore parts of New Holland (Australia) and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times. Dampier has been described as the first natural historian of Australia and the greatest explorer-adventurer between Sir Walter Raleigh and Captain Cook.

Put a title - Early English and Dutch Explorers
Write a very brief biography of each explorer below, covering the following points:
  • date of voyage
  • a map of his journey (find one and cut & paste it into your wiki page)
  • name of ship(s)
  • importance of the voyage (the first to do what?)

If you find any good pictures add them to your notes.

Name & Dates of Journeys

  • Francis Drake 1577-80
  • Abel Tasman 1642
  • William Dampier 1688
  • James Cook 1768-71

The impact of spanish colonisation on the incan empire